Many years have passed since our ancestors were looking absolutely different from the way we do today, lived in caves and ate what they find or kill. Now we have less facial hair, a straight back, developed facial muscles and a more developed brain. Our lifestyle also changed: we live alone, not in groups, and primitive weapons were replaced by advanced gadgets. Many kinds of Prehistoric people were discovered by archaeologists, but genetically we practically do not differ from each other!
The reason for this is that our common ancestors are the great apes of East Africa. Genetic diversity is determined by an interesting indicator of the effective size of the population: this indicator distinguishes how many individuals are required to recreate the existing population in all its diversity. In order to recreate the current seven billion people, only 15,000 individuals of our species are required. And, for example, mice will need 733,000 animals to restore the existing population! Neanderthals are our ”genetic friends”, but they are smaller, more muscular, and their eyes are bigger than ours. Prehistoric Neanderthals appeared in Europe earlier than our species, so they developed a little differently.
But soon our species met the Neanderthals, and although they subsequently died out, we managed to get some of their genes through crossing the species. The first samples of accumulators and the planisphere are not the only ”gadgets” that were discovered during the researches around the world.
The most significant findings were the Nimrud lens and the Antikythera mechanism. A sufficiently capacious list, consisting of fourteen names of strange Prehistoric animals that exist to this day, includes Triops longicaudatus (freshwater crustacean resembling a miniature horseshoe), Lamprey (swordless fish with a jagged sucker mouth), Sandhill crane, Sturgeon (”primitive fish” inhabiting the mountains and coastal waters of temperate, subarctic and subtropical areas), Chinese giant salamander, Martialis heureka ant, Goblin shark (lilac, extremely frightening fish), Horseshoe crab, Echidna (like the platypus, is the only mammal that lays eggs), New Zealand’s Tuatara, Frilled shark (no less disgusting than Goblin shark) and Alligator snapping turtle.